Server = Computer zur Auslieferung von Websites

Zwischen einem normalem Computer und einem Server besteht in der Hardware kein Unterschied. Was zeichnet den Server aus?

  • Ein Computer wird zum Server, wenn Serverdienste auf ihm eingerichtet sind
  • Auf einen Server greifen andere Computer zu, die sogenannten Clients

Solche Clients sind zum Beispiel die Besucher einer Webseite. Der passende Dienst nennt sich Webserver. Ein Webserver befindet sich in der Regel in einem Serverzentrum und ist 24 Stunden am Tag in Betrieb. Die meisten Hoster bieten nicht nur gewöhnlichen Webspace zur Miete an, sondern auch verschiedene Server-Modelle. Die wichtigsten Typen:

  • Managed Server
  • vServer
  • Root-Server

Managed Server

Beim Managed Server führt der Hoster die Wartungs- und Sicherungsarbeiten aus. Die Möglichkeiten zur Konfiguration sind begrenzt. Die Vor- und Nachteile eines Managed Servers:

  • Vorteil: Schneller Webspace
  • Vorteil: Wenig Riskio
  • Vorteil: Um Technik und Sicherheit kümmert sich der Hoster
  • Nachteil: Managed Server sind relativ teuer


Bei vServern teilen sich die Betreiber einer Website die Hardware mit anderen, haben aber Root-Zugriff. Innerhalb ihres Bereichs sind sie flexibel und können die Servereinstellungen anpassen. Die Vor- und Nachteile eines Managed Servers:

  • Vorteil: vServer sind relativ billig
  • Vorteil: Viele Möglichkeiten zur Anpassung des Servers
  • Nachteil: Der Root-Zugriff birgt auch ein hohes Risiko
  • Nachteil: Aufwand für Server-Konfiguration
  • Nachteil: Der Server wird mit anderen Website-Betreibern geteilt, bei Problemen sind alle betroffen


Beim Root-Server hat der Betreiber die Hardware für sich alleine. Die Vor- und Nachteile:

  • Vorteil: Eigene Hardware
  • Vorteil: Der Server wird nicht durch die Fehler anderer in Mitleidenschaft gezogen
  • Vorteil: Die Performance leidet nicht, wenn andere zuviel Serverlast verschleißen
  • Nachteil: Der Root-Zugriff birgt auch ein hohes Risiko
  • Nachteil: Aufwand für Server-Konfiguration

Für alle Modelle mit Root-Zugriff gilt: Falls ein Server gehackt wird, haftet der Betreiber – nicht der Hoster.

Eigener Server für die Website: Ja oder nein?

Ab welcher Anzahl von Page Impressions (Seitenaufrufen) lohnt sich ein eigener Server? Richtwerte:

  • Unter 1.000 Page Impressions pro Tag: Ein eigener Server bringt gegenüber gewöhlichem Webspace kaum Vorteile.
  • 1.000 bis 10.000 Page Impressions pro Tag: Ein eigener Server bringt Vorteile, wenn viele User gleichzeitig auf eine Webseite zugreifen.
  • 10.000 bis 100.000 Page Impressions pro Tag: Ein eigener Server fängt Besucherspitzen gut ab.
  • Mehr als 100.000 Page Impressions pro Tag: Ein eigener Server erhöht die Performance der Website spürbar.


Die wichtigsten Systeme für Websserver:

  • Apache-Server – Apache-Server sind immer noch am weitesten verbreitet
  • NginX-Server – NginX, ausgesprochen „Engine X“. Dieses System liefert Websites schneller als als Apache Server

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